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Although the original intent of the following rules, procedures and regulations was to address terrorism concerns, they also have increased cargo security.
• The Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism, a government-private firm partnership that seeks to safeguard the trade industry from terrorists. The partnership seeks to develop and adopt measures that add security but do not have a chilling effect on trade.
• The Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002, an extensive bill that directs the secretary of the Transportation Department to identify vessel types and U.S. port facilities that pose a high risk of being involved in a transportation security incident and assess U.S. port facilities' vulnerability to an incident.
• The U.S. Container Security Initiative, a program intended to help increase security for maritime containerized cargo shipped to the United States from around the world.
• The U.S. Transportation Workers Identification Credential, a security measure intended to ensure that individuals who pose a threat do not gain unescorted access to secure areas of the U.S. maritime transportation system.
• The Advanced Manifest (24-Hour) Rule, which requires filing shipment data for maritime containerized imports 24 hours before loading the cargo to the vessel.
• The International Ship & Port Facility Security Code, which is intended to ensure the security of ships and port facilities.
A recent proliferation of economic and trade sanctions that can apply directly to insurers means that marine insurance companies must undertake detailed due diligence.